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The Ancient Greeks believed that everything in the Universe was created from combinations of the four elements, Earth, Air, Fire and water, beautiful in its simplicity, but scientifically incorrect. (Ancient Greeks playing with wind, fire, water and earth)

Then, in the 5th century BC a Greek philosopher, Democritus, realised that if you split a rock in two, the two halves would remain essentially the same and that if you continually split the rock you would end up with a piece so small it could not be divided. He called these small pieces of matter “atomos”, Greek for indivisible. (Democritus breaking a rock into smaller and smaller pieces)

Democritus, believed that “atomos” or atoms came in different sizes and shapes and were in constant motion in a void and when they collided with each other could stick together or rebound. (atoms rushing about in a void colliding and sticking together or skidding to a halt and going in opposite direction)

This theory was remarkable, BUT, Aristotle, most popular philosopher of the day (Aristotle Rock Star style surrounded by adoring fans)

rejected this theory (Aristotle putting huge red cross through paper handed to him by Democritus)

And as has happened many times since, the most respected voice of the time drowned out the truth, and Democritus’s atomic theory was ignored for nearly 2,000 years! (images of Aristotle gagging Democritus and then later times showing people arguing the world was round and not flat)

So to Dark Matter itself, about which more is NOT known than is known. Yet this unknown substance makes up somewhere between 25-27% of the Universe, the remaining 73-75% being made up of Dark Energy, another unknown entity, and around 5% being the matter we can see, Earth, Planets, stars etc. (pie chart with lots of black lightening, black dots gathering together and planets and stars)

One of the problems with Dark Matter, is that initially it was thought that the Universe was expanding more rapidly now then it was in the past, until in 1998 the Hubble Space Telescope observed very distant Supernovas that showed, that a very long time ago, the Universe was in fact expanding faster than it is now. (Supernovas pointing the way to a rapidl expanding Universe)

We know Dark Matter is neither Anti-matter, as there are no unique Gamma Rays, nor Galaxy sized black holes as these would bend light passing near them away. (No Entry sign with Matter written on it, and black hole bending light away)

If it were tied up in Brown Dwarfs, Baryonic matter could make up Dark Matter (lots of groups of 3 Quarks being tied up by Brown Dwarfs)

Or it could be Massive Compact Halo Objects, known as MACHO’s (burly men running around in space bumping into each other)

The most common view though is that Dark Matter is made of more exotic particles like Axions or Weakly Interactive Massive Particles, known as WIMPS (lots of weedy looking guys shoving the Macho’s and Brown Dwarfs out the way)

Then we come to one of the latest theories, which much like the very early Greek ones based around the four elements Earth, Wind, Fire and Water, is simple.

Professor Robert Scherrer and Post Doctoral Fellow Chiu Man Ho have theorised that 85% of the Dark Matter in the Universe may be made up of basic particles called Majorana Fermions (shot of stoned hippy with a joint)

NOT Marujana, MAJORANA Fermions, which possess an unusual donut shaped electro-magnetic field called an Anapole (show donut shaped objects floating around)

Their existence was first predicted in the 1930’s but they stubbornly avoided detection (donut shaped particles in trench coats, hats and dark glasses hiding behind walls etc)

These Majorana Fermions due to their unique shape magnetic field, Anapole, have properties unlike the magnetic fields of particles with the common poles of North and South or Positive and Negative (large U shaped magnet attracting objects to it)

which also makes them difficult to detect.

(detective with large magnifying glass searching for particles)

Particles with Anapole fields must be moving in order to interact with magnetic fields and the faster they move the stronger the interaction. As a result they would have been much more active during the early days of the Universe when everything was closer together (donut shaped particles rushing around crowded Universe at high speed)

And, as the Universe expanded and cooled they would have slowed down (Universe expanding and cooling, donut particles wearing winter coats and moving slower and slower)

According to calculated predictions, detectors buried underground all over the world should soon discover the existence of these particles, or, based on experiments, rule them out.

(This still needs work, and is more than likely longer than a minute, but can hopefully be cut down to right length)


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