Test has two different meanings. Its origin fromthe middle english word cupel,dates back toOld french, from the latin word of testu/testum meaning earthen pot or variant of the word "testa" which is jug or shell.(mid 19th century)It is a verb, and a noun, but originates as a verb. I've listed a few definitions for test that we commonly use now, if it helps.
"The procedure intended to establish quality of something."
"A basis for evaluation or judgement."
"An event or situation that reveals the strength or quality of something...